Supplementary Material for: Induction of GNE in Myofibers after Muscle Injury

Objective: The aim of the present study was to clarify the expression of uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) protein and mRNA in damaged or regenerating myofibers. Methods: We investigated the muscle expression pattern of GNE protein by immunohistochemistry using a murine model involving intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin (CTX), and the expression level of GNE mRNA by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of damaged or regenerating myofibers that had been collected directly from tissue sections using laser-capture microdissection. Results: The expression of GNE protein was increased in severely damaged myofibers as well as in regenerating myofibers with central nuclei, both of which also showed an increase in the expression of GNE mRNA. In regenerating myofibers, immunoreactivity for GNE protein in nuclei relative to that in the cytoplasm was higher at 7 days than at 4 days after CTX injection. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that GNE expression is induced when myofibers are damaged or regenerating, and that GNE plays a role in muscle regeneration.