Supplementary Material for: Influence of Feeding Types during the First Months of Life on Calciuria Levels in Healthy Infants: A Secondary Analysis from a Randomized Clinical Trial

Background/Aims: Dietary factors can modify calciuria. We aim to investigate urinary calcium excretion in healthy infants according to their protein. Methods: Secondary data analysis from a randomized clinical trial where healthy term infants were randomized after birth to a higher (HP) or lower (LP) protein content formula that was consumed until age 1 year. A non-randomized group of breastfed (BF) infants was used for reference. Anthropometry, dietary intakes and calciuria (calcium/creatinine ratios) from spot urine samples were assessed at ages 3 and 6 months. At 6 months, the kidney volumes were assessed using ultrasonography, and the serum urea and creatinine levels were determined. Results: BF infants showed the highest calciuria levels, followed by the HP and the LP groups (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Either protein intakes or formula types modulated the calciuria in linear regression models adjusted for other influencing dietary factors. The usual cut-off values classified 37.8% (BF), 16.8% (HP) and 4.9% (LP) of the infants as hypercalciuric. Conclusions: Feeding types during the first months of life affect calciuria, with BF infants presenting the highest levels. We propose new cut-off values, based on feeding types, to prevent the overestimation in hypercalciuria diagnoses among BF infants.