Supplementary Material for: Interleaving Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease, Tremor, and Dystonia

Background/Aims: Interleaving stimulation (ILS) in deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides individualized stimulation of 2 contacts delivered in alternating order. Currently, limited information on the utility of ILS exists. The aims of this study were to determine the practical applications and outcomes of ILS DBS in Parkinson’s disease (PD), tremor, and dystonia. Methods: We performed a single-center, unblinded, retrospective chart review of all patients with DBS attempted on ILS at our referral center assessing for rationale and outcomes. Results: Fifty patients (PD, n = 27; tremor, n = 7; dystonia, n = 16 patients) tried ILS for 2 rationales: management of adverse effects (n = 29) and to improve clinical efficacy (n = 21). A total of 19 patients demonstrated improvement with ILS for adverse effect management predominately for the treatment of dyskinesias (n = 12). In the vast majority of dyskinetic patients, a contact added into the rostral zona incerta with ILS was performed. Nine out of 21 patients demonstrated improved clinical efficacy with ILS with all 6 PD patients who tried ILS for this rationale demonstrating benefit. Conclusions: In PD, ILS provided benefits for dyskinesias and parkinsonism, with minimal improvement of other adverse effects. In tremor and dystonia, marginal effects in terms of mitigation of adverse effects and improvement of clinical outcomes were evident.