Supplementary Material for: Iron Regulation by Molidustat, a Daily Oral Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor, in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Background/Aims: The current treatment for anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) includes the administration of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) combined with iron supplementation. Molidustat, a hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, has potential to treat anemia associated with CKD through increased erythropoietin production and improved iron availability. Here, we report the effect of molidustat on iron metabolism. Method: Parameters of iron metabolism were monitored in three 16-week, randomized, controlled, phase 2 studies assessing the safety and efficacy of molidustat in the treatment of anemia associated with CKD in different populations: treatment-naïve and previously ESA-treated patients not on dialysis, and previously ESA-treated patients on hemodialysis. Iron supplementation was left at the discretion of the investigator. Results: In treatment-naïve patients not on dialysis, transferrin saturation (TSAT), hepcidin, ferritin, and iron concentrations decreased with molidustat, whereas total iron binding capacity (TIBC) increased. Similar results were observed in previously ESA-treated patients not on dialysis, although changes in those parameters were larger in treatment-naïve than in previously ESA-treated patients. In previously ESA-treated patients receiving hemodialysis, hepcidin concentration and TIBC remained stable with molidustat, whereas TSAT and ferritin and iron concentrations increased. Generally, similar trends were observed in secondary analyses of subgroups of patients not receiving iron supplementation. Conclusions: Molidustat is a potential alternative to standard treatment of anemia associated with CKD, with a different mechanism of action. In patients not receiving dialysis, molidustat increases iron availability. In patients receiving hemodialysis, further investigation is required to understand fully the mechanisms underlying iron mobilization associated with molidustat.