Supplementary Material for: Laparoscopic Bladder-Preserving Surgery for Enterovesical Fistula Complicated with Benign Gastrointestinal Disease

Enterovesical fistula (EVF) is a relatively uncommon condition that is associated with severe morbidity. Minimally invasive and organ-preserving surgery should be performed in the case of EVF caused by benign diseases. We applied laparoscopic bladder-preserving surgery (LBPS) for EVF caused by benign gastrointestinal disease. Here, we report a surgical technique for LBPS. Patient and instrument port positioning are similar to those used in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Dissection around the fistula is performed along the intestine as distant from the bladder as possible. If there is sufficient area around the intestinal portion of the fistula, it is isolated and resected using a linear stapler. If this approach is not possible, the intestinal fistula is sharply dissected as far away from the bladder as possible. LBPS for EVF was performed in 4 patients and included 3 direct sharp dissections and 1 stapling dissection. Three of the 4 patients did not require any further treatment for the bladder, and all procedures were feasibly accomplished under laparoscopic conditions. In conclusion, LBPS is feasible in cases of EVF caused by benign gastrointestinal disease, and we suggest that it should be the first choice of intervention in such cases.