Supplementary Material for: Long-Term Immune Alterations Accompanying Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following Exposure to Suicide Bomb Terror Incidents during Childhood

<b><i>Background and Aim:</i></b> Long-term immune alterations have been proposed to play a mechanistic role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as in its associated increase in medical morbidity and mortality. Better characterization of altered immune function may help identify diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and potentially targets for preventive intervention. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> As part of an ongoing study, we conducted a preliminary case-control comparison of resting immune inflammatory profiles between terror victims treated in childhood at the emergency department over the previous decade, who developed chronic PTSD upon long-term follow-up, and healthy controls. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Our preliminary results in a subsample of this ongoing study support and extend elevated resting levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-4, and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted in childhood onset chronic PTSD. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Chronic immune alterations may participate in inflammatory activation and signal to the CNS through the neurovascular unit, as well as modulate the neuroendocrine axis. Better characterization and understanding of these preliminary findings may point to diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and potentially elucidate mechanistic involvement of immune activation in PTSD.