Supplementary Material for: Major Contribution of Genomic Copy Number Variation in Syndromic Congenital Heart Disease: The Use of MLPA as the First Genetic Test

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common congenital disorder among live births. When associated with extracardiac abnormalities, it is characterized as a syndromic heart disease (syndromic CHD) and corresponds to 25% of all liveborn infants with a heart defect. The etiology in about 65% of the cases still remains unknown, and in about 35% of the patients, it is associated with genetic factors. In the present study, MLPA and SNP-array techniques were used to investigate a group of 47 patients with syndromic CHD. In total, 16 defects (34%) were identified, of which 12 (25.5%) were classified as pathogenic or probably pathogenic. The most frequent abnormalities were 22q11.2 deletion (22q11.2 deletion syndrome) and 7q11.23 deletion (Williams-Beuren syndrome). We also show that rarer malformations may be associated with syndromic CHD, such as 14q32.33 deletion as well as 17q25.3, 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2), 22q13.31, and 12p13.31 (SLC2A3) duplications. The present study demonstrates that CNVs are important causal factors and should be studied in patients with syndromic CHD. Furthermore, the use of MLPA as a first screening test was appropriate, as this less expensive technology detected 11 of the 12 pathogenic abnormalities (91.6%).