Supplementary Material for: Mask versus Prongs for Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is an effective method of respiratory support for preterm infants. Nasal masks and binasal prongs are two interfaces available to deliver NCPAP, and it is unclear if one is superior to the other. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, using the methodology recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration, to compare the efficacy and safety of nasal masks versus binasal prongs to deliver NCPAP in preterm infants <37 weeks of gestation. Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, the Cochrane database, and PubMed were searched in February 2019. Seven trials met the inclusion criteria. Among preterm infants requiring NCPAP, the use of a nasal mask, compared to nasal prongs, decreased the rate of NCPAP failure within 72 h (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53–0.97; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome [NNTB] 12.5, 95% CI 7.1–100; 5 trials, 576 participants; low-certainty evidence) and the incidence of nasal injury (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59–0.85; NNTB 8.3, 95% CI 5.6–16.7; 6 trials, 665 participants; low-certainty evidence). In a subgroup of preterm infants requiring NCPAP after resuscitation at birth, the use of a nasal mask decreased the incidence of moderate-to-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23–0.95; NNTB 16.7, 95% CI 9.1–100; 4 trials, 395 participants; very-low-certainty evidence) and the need for subsequent surfactant administration (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64–0.96; NNTB 8.33, 95% CI 4.54–33.33; 4 trials, 395 participants; low-certainty evidence). The use of nasal masks for preterm infants requiring NCPAP was associated with a reduction in NCPAP failure, need for surfactant administration, and moderate-to-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (low- to very-low-certainty evidence). Given the potential clinical benefit and minimal risk associated with a change in patient interface, nasal masks should be considered the preferred interface for NCPAP delivery in preterm infants.