Supplementary Material for: Metagenome of Mehsani Buffalo Rumen Microbiota: An Assessment of Variation in Feed-Dependent Phylogenetic and Functional Classification

Aim: To gain a greater understanding of the ecology and metabolic potential of the rumen microbiome with the changes in the animal diet. Methods: Diet composed of varying proportion of green and dry roughages along with grains was given to 8 Mehsani buffaloes, and rumen metagenome was sketched using shotgun semiconductor sequencing. Results: In the present study, the Bacteroidetes were found to be dominant at the phyla level and Prevotella at the genus level. The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes was found to be higher in the solid fraction as compared to the liquid fraction. In the solid fraction of the dry roughage group, the significant increment (p < 0.05) in Bacteroidetes abundance was observed with increment of roughage concentration. At the genus level, Clostridium significantly increased with the increment in roughage concentration. A comparison of glycoside hydrolase and cellulosome functional genes revealed more glycoside hydrolase 3 encoding genes with higher fiber diet and significant difference in carbohydrate-active enzymes family composition between green and dry roughage groups of the liquid fraction. Conclusion: The present study provides a base to understand the modulating behavior of microbiota which can be manipulated to improve livestock nutrient utilization efficiency and for targeting the efficient catabolism of complex carbohydrate molecules as well.