Supplementary Material for: Methylphenidate and Guanfacine Ameliorate ADHD-Like Phenotypes in Fez1-Deficient Mice

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that, while prevalent, has a stagnant track record for advances in treatment. The limited availability of animal models with appropriate face and predictive validities has hampered progress in developing novel neurobiological hypotheses and testing new therapeutic options for this condition. Here, we report that mice deficient in Fez1, a gene specifically expressed in the nervous system with documented functions in neurodevelopment, show hyperactivity and impulsivity phenotypes, which are ameliorated by administering methylphenidate (MPH) or guanfacine (GFC), two pharmacological agents used for ADHD treatment. Fez1-knockout (KO) mice show reduced expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the midbrain and the brain stem and have reduced levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, or their metabolites in both the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. These neurochemical changes in Fez1-KO mice were normalized by MPH or GFC. We propose that Fez1-KO mice can be used as a model to evaluate the role of altered neurodevelopment in the manifestation of ADHD-like behavioral phenotypes, as well as to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms of existing and new pharmacotherapeutic agents for ADHD.