Supplementary Material for: Mismatch Repair Deficiency Drives Durable Complete Remission by Targeting Programmed Death Receptor 1 in a Metastatic Luminal Breast Cancer Patient

<p><b><i>Background:</i></b> In the field of breast cancer tumor biology, triple-negative breast cancer patients are the main focus of current clinical trials exploring the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors due to higher frequencies of somatic mutations, neoantigens, and resulting tumor-specific T-cell reactivity. <b><i>Case Report:</i></b> Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old woman with metastatic luminal breast cancer that rapidly responded to monotherapy with pembrolizumab, a monoclonal anti-PD-1 antibody. This patient obtained a partial clinical response within the first cycle of treatment and an ongoing durable complete remission after 12 weeks. Except for a transient immune-related thyreoiditis, there were no side effects observed offering remarkable quality of life to the patient. To evaluate the underlying mechanisms, we performed immunohistochemistry, explored the mutational landscape by whole-exome sequencing, and identified potential T-cell epitopes by prediction of neoantigens with high affinity binding to one of the patient's HLA. Briefly, we found a strong infiltration of CD8+ T cells without staining for PD-L1 in the tumor stroma. Exome sequencing revealed an enormous frequency of somatic and tumor-specific alterations, mainly C>T/G>A transitions. The mutational pattern was further linked to genome instability and deficient mismatch repair supported by the loss of MSH6 protein expression and therefore leading to susceptibility to immune checkpoint blockade. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Within the overall goal to establish operating procedures for breast cancer immunotherapy, we propose to re-evaluate testing for deficient mismatch repair and to further intensify the search for biomarkers predictive for the success of immune checkpoint modulation including all tumor biologic subtypes of breast cancer.</p>