Supplementary Material for: Neuroinflammation and B-Cell Phenotypes in Cervical and Lumbosacral Regions of the Spinal Cord in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in the Absence of Pertussis Toxin

Objectives: The active experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model is often initiated using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) immunization followed by pertussis toxin (PTX) to study multiple sclerosis. However, PTX inactivates G protein-coupled receptors, and with increasing knowledge of the role that various G protein-coupled receptors play in immune homeostasis, it is valuable to establish neuroimmune endpoints for active EAE without PTX. Methods: Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with MOG35–55 peptide in Complete Freund’s Adjuvant and neuroinflammation, including central nervous system B-cell infiltration, was compared to saline-injected mice. Since it was anticipated that disease onset would be slower and less robust than EAE in the presence of PTX, both cervical and lumbosacral sections of the spinal cord were evaluated. Results: Immunohistochemical analysis showed that EAE without PTX induced immune infiltration, CCL2 and VCAM-1 upregulation. Demyelination in the cervical region correlated with the infiltration of CD19+ B cells in the cervical region. There was upregulation of IgG, CD38, and PDL1 on B cells in cervical and lumbosacral regions of the spinal cord in EAE without PTX. Interestingly, IgG was expressed predominantly by CD19 cells. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that many neuroimmune endpoints are induced in EAE without PTX and although clinical disease is mild, this can be used as an autoimmune model when PTX inactivation of G protein-coupled receptors is not desired.