Supplementary Material for: Occurrence and Origin of Supernumerary Chromosomes in Partamona (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini)

Samples from 861 colonies of 12 <i>Partamona</i> species from 125 Brazilian localities were analysed for a SCAR marker specific to the B chromosomes of <i>P. helleri</i>. We identified the SCAR marker in 6 of the 12 species analysed, including 2 <i>(P. gregaria</i> and <i>P. chapadicola)</i> from the pearsoni clade. This is the first report on the presence of this marker in <i>Partamona</i> species that are not included in the cupira clade, which indicates that the B chromosomes probably are more widespread in this genus than previously thought. The analysis revealed a high frequency of the SCAR marker in the samples of <i>P. helleri</i> (0.47), <i>P. cupira</i> (0.46), and <i>P. rustica</i> (0.29), and a low frequency in <i>P.</i> aff.<i>helleri</i> (0.06). The frequency of the marker in <i>P. helleri</i> was correlated with the latitude of the sampling locality, decreasing from north to south. Sequence data on the SCAR marker from 50 individuals of the 6 species in which the presence of this marker was shown revealed a new scenario for the origin of the B chromosomes in <i>Partamona</i>.