Supplementary Material for: Olanzapine Reversed Brain Gene Expression Changes Induced by Phencyclidine Treatment in Non-Human Primates

The NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) creates schizophrenia-like symptoms in normal controls. The effect of PCP on non-human primate brain gene expression was examined and compared to changes induced by olanzapine treatment. Experimental studies of PCP and antipsychotic drugs have direct relevance to understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia. Genome-wide changes in prefrontal cortex gene expression revealed alterations of 146 transcripts in the PCP treatment group compared to vehicle controls. Dysregulated genes were enriched in identified classes implicated in neurological and genetic disorders, including schizophrenia genes from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 108 loci as well as cell death in PCP-treated primates. Canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant overrepresentation of several groups including synaptic long-term potentiation and calcium signaling. Olanzapine coadministered with PCP normalized 34% of the 146 PCP-induced probe set expression changes, and a network of 17 olanzapine-normalized genes was identified enriched in schizophrenia candidate genes containing RGS4, SYN1 and AKT as nodes. The results of this study support the use of PCP administration in non-human primates as a glutamatergic model of schizophrenia and suggest that a large number of PCP-induced expression differences can be reversed by olanzapine. The results of this study may be informative for identification of potential candidates for pharmacogenetics and biomarker research related to the treatment of schizophrenia.