Supplementary Material for: Parathyroidectomy Increases Heart Rate Variability and Leptin Levels in Patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease

Background: In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, decreased heart rate variability (HRV) reflects impaired cardiac automatic nervous function and high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lower HRV in patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a clinical manifestation of CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), could be reversed by parathyroidectomy (PTX). It has been proved that leptin interacts with the autonomic nervous function. However, the associations between leptin and HRV in CKD patients and their longitudinal changes in SHPT patients after PTX are still unknown. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 141 stage 5 CKD patients, and a prospective study in 36 severe SHPT patients with PTX. HRV was measured by Holter and serum leptin was measured by ELISA. Serum leptin levels were adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and transformed using natural logarithm (lnleptin/BMI). Results: With a gradient of lnleptin/BMI across quartiles from Q1 to Q4 in CKD patients, HRV indices showed no differences among quartiles. Patients in Q1 group had higher mean 24 h heart rates, and lower ln(very low frequency) (lnVLF) than other quartiles, although there were no statistically significant difference. In multivariate stepwise regression, serum leptin/BMI was an independent predictor for low frequency/high frequency. HRV indices and lnleptin/BMI levels were increased in severe SHPT patients after PTX. Compared to other quartiles, SHPT patients in Q1 group had larger improvement of lnVLF after PTX. Conclusion: Circulating leptin levels may be a novel treatment target to reduce CVD risk in advanced CKD-MBD patients.