Supplementary Material for: Patiromer to Enable Spironolactone Use in the Treatment of Patients with Resistant Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease: Rationale and Design of the AMBER Study
2018-09-10T10:33:16Z (GMT) by
Background: While chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in resistant hypertension (RHTN), prior studies evaluating mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists excluded patients with reduced kidney function due to risk of hyperkalemia. AMBER (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03071263) will evaluate if the potassium-binding polymer patiromer used concomitantly with spironolactone in patients with RHTN and CKD prevents hyperkalemia and allows more persistent spironolactone use for hypertension management. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group 12-week study of patiromer and spironolactone versus placebo and spironolactone in patients with uncontrolled RHTN and CKD. RHTN is defined as unattended systolic automated office blood pressure (AOBP) of 135–160 mm Hg during screening despite taking ≥3 antihypertensives, including a diuretic, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker (unless not tolerated or contraindicated). The CKD inclusion criterion is an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25 to ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m2. Screening serum potassium must be 4.3–5.1 mEq/L. The primary efficacy endpoint is the between-group difference (spironolactone plus patiromer versus spironolactone plus placebo) in the proportion of patients remaining on spironolactone at Week 12. Results: Baseline characteristics have been analyzed as of March 2018 for 146 (of a targeted 290) patients. Mean (SD) baseline age is 69.3 (10.9) years; 52.1% are male, 99.3% White, and 47.3% have diabetes. Mean (SD) baseline serum potassium is 4.68 (0.25) mEq/L, systolic AOBP is 144.3 (6.8) mm Hg, eGFR is 35.7 (7.7) mL/min/1.73 m2. Conclusion: AMBER will define the ability of patiromer to facilitate the use of spironolactone, an effective antihypertensive therapy for patients with RHTN and CKD.