Supplementary Material for: Placental Proinflammatory State and Maternal Endothelial Dysfunction in Preeclampsia

Objective: To evaluate the placental and decidual gene expression and maternal and umbilical serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), along with the proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios in women with preeclampsia (PE) vs. women with normal pregnancy (NP), and to analyze PE classified as early- (EO) and late-onset (LO). Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed with 50 women with PE (EO n = 30, LO n = 20) and 50 women with NP. Tissue gene expression levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Cytokines and adhesion molecules serum concentrations were measured by immunoassays. Results: In PE, placental expression of IL-10 and IL-1RA was lower, while placental IL-8/IL-1RA ratio and maternal concentrations of VCAM-1 were higher vs. NP. In EO, placental expression of IL-10 was lower, while placental IL-8/IL-10 and IL-8/IL-1RA ratios were higher than LO and NP. Maternal concentrations of IL-6 were higher in LO than EO and NP. Throughout PE, maternal VCAM-1 concentrations were higher vs. NP. No significant differences were observed in the decidual expression and umbilical concentrations of the markers between the groups. Conclusion: PE associates with a proinflammatory placental state; however, EO associates with a proinflammatory placental state, while LO associates with systemic maternal inflammation. Both subtypes associated with maternal endothelial dysfunction.