Supplementary Material for: Plasma Copeptin and Decline in Renal Function in a Cohort from the Community: The Prospective D.E.S.I.R. Study

Background/Aims: In recent days, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming an increasing public health problem. Identification of factors contributing to its progression is crucial for designing preventive interventions. Previous studies suggested that chronically high vasopressin is deleterious to the renal function. We evaluated plasma copeptin, a surrogate of vasopressin, as a predictor for renal function decline in a community cohort. Methods: Plasma copeptin was measured at baseline in 1,234 participants from the D.E.S.I.R. study, a prospective cohort from the French general population. All participants were followed for 9 years. Progression towards CKD during follow-up was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 on at least one follow-up visit. We have also considered the criterion ‘Certain Drop in eGFR' proposed by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) group. Results: Progression towards CKD was observed in 86 (7.0%) participants. Factors like age, female gender, plasma copeptin and use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin 2 receptor blocker at baseline were positively associated, and eGFR inversely associated with CKD progression during follow-up. The hazard ratio per unit of log10-transformed plasma copeptin was 1.65 (95% CI 1.06-2.54) and p = 0.02. Copeptin was similarly associated with CKD and this was observed when we considered the KDIGO criterion: OR 3.03 (95% CI 1.21-7.57), p = 0.02. Conclusion: The plasma copeptin level was independently and positively associated with progression towards CKD in a community-based cohort. Our results add to the available evidence for a deleterious effect of high vasopressin on renal health not only in selected groups of patients with CKD but also in the general population.