Supplementary Material for: Predictive Value of F-18 FDG PET/CT for Malignant Pleural Effusion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) imaging in the detection of malignant pleural effusion and pleural metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: We analyzed F-18 FDG PET/CT images of 33 lung cancer patients with pleural effusion. We used 2 categorical parameters to differentiate malignant from benign pleural effusion: i) quantitative parameters using maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax of effusion and pleura, and the following ratios: lesion to aorta (L/Ao), to cerebellum (L/Cbl), to liver (L/Liv), to nonlesion (L/NL), and to primary lung cancer (L/Prim)) and ii) various parameters determined by PET and CT scans (uptake at the pleural region, Hounsfield unit, size, and morphology of any solid abnormality). Results: Malignant pleural effusions showed significantly higher L/Prim values than benign pleural effusions. The presence of pleural abnormality on CT and pleural region uptake on PET images were found to be significantly more frequent in cases of malignant pleural disease. These parameters could differentiate malignant and benign pleural effusion according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. There were no statistical differences between L/Prim, pleural abnormality on CT, and pleural region uptake on PET images. Abnormal pleural region uptake on PET images was the most accurate parameter identifying malignant pleural effusion by logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: Our results suggest that F-18 FDG PET/CT can be used as a reliable and noninvasive method for the differentiation of malignant and benign pleural disease in patients with NSCLC.



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