Supplementary Material for: Prevalence of Driving and Traffic Accidents among People with Seizures: A Systematic Review

Background and Objectives: Epilepsy influences the ability to drive. We undertook a systematic review to determine the prevalence of driving or holding a driver’s license among people with seizures, the prevalence of traffic accidents among those who drive, and factors that may explain heterogeneity in these point estimates. Method: We followed MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines in searching 8 databases from inception to June 27, 2018. All published observational studies were included, with the exception of case-control studies where prevalence could not be determined, case reports, and studies with fewer than 50 participants. We assessed external and internal validity and quality of studies, produced forest plots, and conducted meta-regression in “Stata 13.” Results: Data were available from 67 studies published between 1967 and 2018. Across the studies there was a wide range in the prevalence of driving (3–90%) and holding a driver’s license (8–98%). Up to 39% of people with epilepsy drove in violation of restrictions. Prevalence of traffic accidents ranged from 0 to 61% following seizure onset, or in the past 1–5 years. The percentage of people with seizures who drove decreased as time since diagnosis increased (p = 0.01, adjusted R2 = 31%). The number of people with seizures who drove or held a driver’s license appears to have increased over time (p = 0.02, adjusted R2 = 7%) but without a corresponding increase in the number of traffic accidents. There was considerable heterogeneity between studies related to definitions, design, and population differences. Conclusions: There is considerable variation in the prevalence of driving after a diagnosis of epilepsy and in reported motor vehicle accidents. Further efforts are required to better understand the impact of epilepsy, and epilepsy surgery, on driving and road safety, especially where driving continues in violation of restrictions. Policy changes are needed to encourage the introduction of available and affordable alternatives for driving, for example, developing public transport networks, and promoting subsidy schemes to encourage use of public transport, taxis, Uber, and Lyft, among people experiencing seizures.