Supplementary Material for: Procaterol Potentiates the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Budesonide on Eosinophil Adhesion to Lung Fibroblasts

Background: The interaction between leukocytes and various parenchymal cells is the first step of inflammation. Therefore, the adhesion of eosinophils to lung fibroblasts is thought to be a crucial step in the inflammatory process of asthma. Procaterol, a β2-selective full agonist, is currently prescribed for patients with asthma. In addition to its potent bronchodilatory action, the agonist has been reported to have anti-inflammatory actions. In this study, to examine whether procaterol can potentiate the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids, the effect of procaterol on eosinophil adhesion to normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) was assessed in the presence and absence of budesonide, one of the most potent glucocorticoids. Methods: Following pretreatment of NHLF with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the presence of various concentrations of procaterol and/or budesonide, the eotaxin-stimulated eosinophil adhesion was determined using the peroxidase activity of eosinophils. To investigate the mechanism of the inhibitory action of procaterol, TNF-α-induced expression of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, in NHLF was also evaluated. Results: Pretreatment with procaterol inhibited the adhesion of eosinophils to NHLF in a concentration-dependent manner, and shifted the concentration-response curve of budesonide to the left. Both procaterol and budesonide resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in NHLF, and an additive inhibitory effect was found when the agents were combined. Conclusions: Given the results of this study which indicated that procaterol exerted an additive action on the anti-inflammatory effect of budesonide, procaterol and glucocorticoids may provide better control for asthma when used together than when used separately.