Supplementary Material for: Protective Effects of Baicalin on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Injury in Caenorhabditis elegans

Objectives: Sepsis-induced inflammation injury and oxidative stress are well known causes of mortality. The anti-inflammatory effects of baicalin have been proposed in a mouse model of experimental sepsis. Here, we investigated its protective effects and associated mechanisms with respect to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury in Caenorhabditis elegans. Methods: Worms were stimulated by LPS (100 μg/mL), with baicalin (1, 10, 100 μmol/L), for 24 h. Animal survival rates and behaviors (reversal and omega turn) were then determined. Further, levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blotting was also performed to determine the protein expression levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), Bax, and Bcl-2. The activities of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents were determined using corresponding kits. Results: Baicalin (10, 100 μmol/L) improved LPS-stimulated C. elegans survival and rescued behavioral phenotypes. It also suppressed the oxidative stress related to LPS injury by decreasing MDA levels and increasing SOD activity. Moreover, the inflammatory response was inhibited as evidenced by decreased levels of cytokines including IL-6, IL-1, and TNF-α. In addition, baicalin treatment significantly decreased cleaved Bax levels and increased Bcl-2 expression in C. elegans treated with LPS. Simultaneously, the expression of NF-κB and TLR4 was significantly decreased. Conclusion: Baicalin treatment protects against LPS-induced injury by decreasing oxidative stress, repressing the inflammatory cascade, and inhibiting apoptosis.