Supplementary Material for: Reduction of Caloric Intake Might Override the Prosteatotic Effects of the PNPLA3 p.I148M and TM6SF2 p.E167K Variants in Patients with Fatty Liver: Ultrasound-Based Prospective Study

Background: The adiponutrin (PNPLA3) p.I148M and transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) p.E167K variants represent risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we assessed the effects of caloric restriction on liver phenotypes in NAFLD patients in relation to the PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genotypes. Methods: We genotyped both variants in 143 individuals with NAFLD (55 females, age 18-74 years) and 180 controls (85 females, age 33-66 years). Liver steatosis was assessed using the ultrasound-based Hamaguchi score. A 4-month dietetic intervention, consisting of restriction of daily caloric intake without changes in physical activity, was performed. Results: Both PNPLA3 (p = 0.002) and TM6SF2 (p = 0.041) variants were associated with NAFLD before intervention. Overall, 88 patients completed the intervention, which led to a significant decrease of steatosis, ALT activities, body mass index, hip and waist circumferences, and waist-hip ratio (all p < 0.0001). Hepatic steatosis and anthropometric traits improved significantly (p < 0.05) in carriers of either PNPLA3 or TM6SF2 risk genotype. The improvement of phenotypic traits, apart from WHR (p = 0.02), was not modified by the presence of PNPLA3 or TM6SF2 variants. Conclusions: The PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 polymorphisms are associated with NAFLD assessed by the Hamaguchi score. Neither PNPLA3 nor TM6SF2 risk alleles impair the response to dietetic intervention in NAFLD.

Categories

License

CC BY 4.0