Supplementary Material for: Reduction of Oxidative Damage Reflects a Better Kidney Transplantation Outcome

Background/Aims: DNA fragmentation is one of the typical features of apoptosis, frequently induced by oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress is known to be related to several pathological processes. In this study, we assessed oxidative damage in the early follow-up period after kidney transplantation measuring DNA oxidation and fragmentation of mononuclear cells and the circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. Methods: Blood samples from 30 kidney transplant recipients were collected before transplantation and after 2 days, 1 month and 6 months. Oxidative DNA fragmentation was measured by Comet Assay, whereas DNA oxidation was evaluated measuring 8-OHdG leukocyte levels. Serum IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α were assayed using a multiplex ELISA analysis. Results: At 6 months after transplantation, a significant reduction in DNA fragmentation and IL-6 plasma levels was observed; DNA oxidation was higher in patients with a worse outcome, with delayed graft function and low nutritional status. We also found a correlation of IL-6 and IL-10 levels with DNA fragmentation and of IL-10 levels with DNA oxidation. Conclusion: Low levels of oxidation and apoptosis at 6 months after transplantation correlate with a better recovery of renal function in kidney allografts. The measurement of cytokine levels confirmed a reduction of inflammatory parameters within 6 months of follow-up.