Supplementary Material for: Remineralisation by Chewing Sugar-Free Gums in a Randomised, Controlled in situ Trial Including Dietary Intake and Gauze to Promote Plaque Formation
2012-04-05T00:00:00Z (GMT) by
Remineralisation has been shown to be an effective mechanism of preventing the progression of enamel caries. The aim of this double-blind, randomised, cross-over in situ study was to compare enamel remineralisation by chewing sugar-free gum with or without casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) where the enamel lesions were exposed to dietary intake and some were covered with gauze to promote plaque formation. Participants wore removable palatal appliances containing 3 recessed enamel half-slabs with subsurface lesions covered with gauze and 3 without gauze. Mineral content was measured by transverse microradiography, and plaque composition was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. For both the gauze-free and gauze-covered lesions, the greatest amount of remineralisation was produced by the CPP-ACP sugar-free gum, followed by the gum without CPP-ACP and then the no-gum control. Recessing the enamel in the appliance allowed plaque accumulation without the need for gauze. There was a trend of less remineralisation and greater variation in mineral content for the gauze-covered lesions. The cell numbers of total bacteria and streptococci were slightly higher in the plaque from the gauze-covered enamel for 2 of the 3 treatment legs; however, there was no significant difference in Streptococcus mutans cell numbers. In conclusion, chewing sugar-free gum containing CPP-ACP promoted greater levels of remineralisation than a sugar-free gum without CPP-ACP or a no-gum control using an in situ remineralisation model including dietary intake irrespective of whether gauze was used to promote plaque formation or not.