Supplementary Material for: Sex-Specific Associations of Androgen Receptor CAG Trinucleotide Repeat Length and of Raloxifene Treatment with Testosterone Levels and Perceived Stress in Schizophrenia

Lower testosterone levels are associated with greater negative symptoms in men with schizophrenia. Testosterone signals via androgen receptor (AR). A functional variant in the AR gene (CAG trinucleotide repeat polymorphism) is associated with circulating testosterone and mood-related symptoms in healthy people. Raloxifene increases testosterone in healthy males and reduces symptom severity and improves cognition in schizophrenia; however, whether raloxifene increases testosterone in men with schizophrenia is unknown. We assessed the interaction of a functional AR gene variant and adjunctive raloxifene on peripheral testosterone and symptom severity in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia (59 males and 38 females) participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of adjunctive raloxifene (120 mg/day). Healthy adults (46 males and 41 females) were used for baseline comparison. Baseline circulating testosterone was decreased in male patients compared to male controls and positively correlated with CAG repeat length in male controls and female patients. Male patients with short, compared to long, CAG repeat length had higher stress scores. Raloxifene treatment increased testosterone in male patients, but was unrelated to AR CAG repeat length, suggesting that raloxifene’s effects may not depend on AR activity. Sex-specific alterations of the relationship between AR CAG repeat length and testosterone suggest that altered AR activity may impact perceived stress in men with schizophrenia.