Supplementary Material for: Silencing MicroRNA-155 Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizure by Inhibiting Microglia Activation

Objective(s): Neuroinflammation is an important contributor to the development of seizures and epilepsy. Micro-RNA-155 (miR-155) plays a critical role in immunity and ­inflammation. This study aims to explore the function of miR-155 and miR-155-mediated inflammation in epilepsy. Methods: About 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were administered an intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of kainic acid (KA) (15 mg/kg) or saline. The mice in the KA group developing acute seizure were further subjected to intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of antagomir negative control (NC) or miR-155 antagomir. Animal behavior was observed according to Racine’s scale, and electroencephalographs were recorded. Primary microglia were cultured and treated with antagomir NC or antagomir. Whole-cell electrophysiological recording was conducted to detect the spontaneous EPSCs and IPSCs in the neurons treated with different conditioned medium from those microglia. miR-155 were detected by qRT-PCR in those models, as well as in the brain or blood from epileptic patients and healthy controls. Results: miR-155 was abundantly expressed in glial cells compared with neurons, and its expression was markedly elevated in the brain of epilepsy patients and KA-induced seizure mice. Silencing miR-155 attenuated KA-induced seizure, abnormal electroencephalography, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and microglia morphology change. Moreover, conditioned media from KA-treated microglia impaired neuron excitability, whereas conditioned media from KA and miR-155 antagomir co-treated microglia had no such effects. Finally, miR-155 levels were significantly higher in the blood of epilepsy patients than those of healthy controls. Conclusion(s): These findings demonstrate that aberrant upregulation of miR-155 contributes to epileptogenesis through inducing microglia neuroinflammation.

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