Supplementary Material for: Skin Care and Synbiotics for Prevention of Atopic Dermatitis or Food Allergy in Newborn Infants: A 2 × 2 Factorial, Randomized, Non-Treatment Controlled Trial

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy (FA) are common childhood diseases, which may either be interrelated or be the result of skin barrier disruption and gut mucosal dysbiosis. Although some evidence suggests the efficacy of emollients and synbiotics, there is no conclusive evidence on the use of these interventions alone or in combination. Objectives: This study is aimed at identifying the efficacy of emollients and synbiotics in preventing AD and FA in children during the first year of life. Methods: The babies of mothers recruited prenatally received either an emollient, synbiotic, both or neither. The intervention was carried out from birth up to 6 months of age. The age of occurrence of AD and FA were reported in multiple questionnaires at 1, 6, and 9 months and at 1 year of age. AD was diagnosed by a pediatrician at 9 months of age. Results: A ­total of 459 babies qualified for the outcome assessment at 1 year of age. Neither the emollient nor the synbiotic showed any effect on reducing the development of AD and FA at 1 year of age. Conclusions: This study did not provide any evidence to show that emollients and synbiotics, alone or in combination are sufficient to prevent the occurrence of AD or FA in children up to 1 year of age.