Supplementary Material for: Sonographic Detection of Seizure-Like Activity in Fetuses with Congenital Infection: Report of Three Cases and Review of the Literature

Fetal seizure is a very rare prenatal finding and associated with an almost invariably poor outcome, the most common causes being hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, congenital anomalies of either the central nervous system (CNS) or musculoskeletal system, and metabolic disorders. The prenatal detection of seizure-like activity in fetuses with congenital infection has not been previously reported. In this report, we describe 3 cases of seizures in fetuses with congenital infection including Zika virus (n = 2) and toxoplasmosis (n = 1). All 3 fetuses had associated CNS abnormalities and the perinatal outcome was uniformly poor. This report suggests that for fetuses with proven congenital infections an extended and targeted sonographic examination may be helpful in ­detecting associated fetal seizures that may even worsen the neonatal outcome.