Supplementary Material for: Sputum Microbiome Dynamics in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients during an Exacerbation Event and Post-Stabilization

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects up to 65 million people worldwide, and COPD exacerbation causes tissue damage and subsequent loss of lung function. It is a multifactorial event in which respiratory infections are involved, but little is known about its dynamics. Objectives: The objective of our study was to determine the microbiome composition during an exacerbation event and post-stabilization. Methods: We conducted an observational analytical study of a cohort of 55 COPD patients in which 2 sputum samples (the first taken during an exacerbation event and the second during clinical post-stabilization) were submitted to 16s RNA ribosomal analysis by Illumina Miseq Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). The presence of respiratory viruses was also determined. Results: Our study found a stable microbiome composition in the post-stabilization sputum samples of COPD patients, and 4 additional microbiomes in samples taken during the exacerbation, 3 of which showed a marked dysbiosis by Haemophilus, Pseudomonas, and Serratia. The fourth exacerbation microbiome had a very similar composition to post-stabilization samples, but some pathogens such as Moraxella and respiratory viruses were also found. Conclusions: Our study reveals the main protagonists involved in lung microbiome dynamics during an exacerbation event and post-stabilization in COPD patients by NGS analysis.