Supplementary Material for: Synergistic Ototoxicity of Gentamicin and Low-Dose Irradiation: Molecular Basis and Clinical Significance

2019-12-13T08:46:13Z (GMT) by Low W.K. Teng S.W. Tan M.G.K.
Background: Inner ear structures may be included in the radiation fields when irradiation is used to treat patients with head and neck cancers. These patients may also have concurrent infections that require gentamicin treatment. Radiation and gentamicin are both potentially ototoxic, and their combined use has been shown to result in synergistic ototoxicity in animals. Objective: We aimed to confirm the synergistic ototoxicity of combined gentamicin and low-dose irradiation treatment and identify the underlying molecular mechanisms using an in vitro model. Method: We compared the ototoxic effects of gentamicin, low-dose irradiation, and their combination in the OC-k3 mouse cochlear cell line using cell viability assay, live/dead stain, apoptosis detection assay, oxidative stress detection, and studied the molecular mechanisms involved using immunoblot analysis. Results: Combined treatment led to prolonged oxidative stress, reduced cell viability, and synergistic apoptosis. Gentamicin induced the concurrent accumulation of LC3b-II and SQSTM1/p62, suggesting an impairment of autophagic flux. Low-dose irradiation induced transient p53 phosphorylation and persistent Akt phosphorylation in response to DNA damage. In combined treatment, gentamicin attenuated irradiation-induced Akt activation. Conclusions: Besides increased oxidative stress, synergistic apoptosis observed in combined treatment could be attributed to gentamicin-induced perturbation of autophagic flux and attenuation of Akt phosphorylation, which led to an impairment of radiation-induced DNA repair response.