Supplementary Material for: TDO2 Overexpression Is Associated with Cancer Stem Cells and Poor Prognosis in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Objective: Esophageal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers in the world, and the main subtype is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), which comprises 90% of cases. Expression of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), an enzyme involved in tryptophan catabolism, has been linked with tumor survival and poor prognosis of brain and breast cancer. However, no studies have investigated the potential role of TDO2 in esophageal cancer. Here we explored the expression and biological significance of TDO2 in ESCC. Methods: TDO2 protein expression was evaluated in 90 ESCC tissue samples by immunohistochemistry. TDO2 function in ESCC cell lines and spheroid colony formation were evaluated by RNA interference (RNAi). Results: TDO2 overexpression was associated with tumor stage, recurrence status, and the CD44 cancer stem cell marker in ESCC. TDO2 overexpression was correlated with poor outcome of ESCC patients. Inhibition of TDO2 expression by RNAi in TE-10 and TE-11 cell lines reduced both the number and the size of spheroid colonies as well as cell proliferation. Knockdown of TDO2 expression also induced inactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Conclusion: Our results imply that TDO2 could play an important role in the progression of ESCC. Furthermore, TDO2 may be a potential therapeutic target in ESCC.