Supplementary Material for: The Anaphylatoxin C3a Receptor Expression on Human M2 Macrophages Is Down-Regulated by Stimulating the Histamine H4 Receptor and the IL-4 Receptor

The anaphylatoxin C3a triggers inflammation by binding to its specific G-protein-coupled C3a receptor (C3aR). Since the number of C3aR, which is expressed on the cell surface, affects the response to C3a, we investigated the expression levels of C3aR on human M2 macrophages in allergic situations where high levels of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 and histamine are present in a local microenvironment. The histamine H1 receptor (H1R), H2R and the H4R mRNA expressions were induced or up-regulated during the differentiation process of M2 macrophages. The presence of histamine or agonists targeting the H1R, H2R and, in particular, the H4R during in vitro differentiation from monocytes to macrophages modified the M2 phenotype by regulating the macrophage differentiation marker CD68 and CD163 expressions. In ­addition, the C3aR expression was also down-regulated by ­ST-1006 during this process. Histamine and ST-1006 down-regulated the expression of C3aR with different time kinetics on fully differentiated M2 macrophages. By analysing C3a-induced IL-6 mRNA expression, we observed a diminished response to C3a in ST-1006-treated M2 macrophages when compared to un-treated cells. Expression of C3 was not affected by histamine, whereas IL-4 strongly down-regulated C3aR and C3 expressions. Our data suggests that down-regulation of C3aR expression by mediators present in allergic situations such as IL-4 or histamine has an anti-inflammatory impact by reducing the sensitivity to C3a-induced down-stream signaling, thereby contributing to the regulation of local inflammatory responses in the skin.