Supplementary Material for: The LncRNA EPEL Promotes Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation Through E2F Target Activation

Background/Aims: Recent studies have revealed that many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play oncogenic or tumor-suppressive roles in various cancers. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and many lung cancer patients frequently relapse after surgery, even those in the early stages. However, the oncogenic or tumor-suppressive roles and clinical implications of lncRNAs in lung cancer have not been fully elucidated. Methods: The association between an E2F-mediated cell proliferation enhancing lncRNA (EPEL) expression and lung cancer patient survival was accessed using public microarray data with clinical information. Cancer-related phenotypes were analyzed by the siRNA knockdown of EPEL in two lung cancer cell lines. Gene set analysis of gene expression data were performed to identify pathways regulated by EPEL. RNA immunoprecipitation, RT-qPCR, and ChIP assays were performed to explore the functions of selected target genes regulated by EPEL. Results: EPEL, known as LOC90768 and MGC45800, was associated with the relapse and survival of lung cancer patients and promoted lung cancer cell proliferation through the activation of E2F target genes. EPEL knockdown specifically down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related E2F target genes, including Cyclin B1 (CCNB1), in lung cancer cells but not that of apoptosis- or metabolism-related E2F target genes. EPEL interacted with E2F1 and regulated the expression of the E2F target genes by changing the binding efficiency of E2F1 to the E2F target promoters. Moreover, the expression levels of EPEL and CCNB1 both alone and in combination were robust prognostic markers for lung cancer. Conclusions: Considering its specific effects on cell cycle-related E2F target genes and its significant association with the prognosis of lung cancer patients, we suggest that the transcriptional regulation of EPEL through E2F target genes is potentially a target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for lung cancer patients.

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