Supplementary Material for: Theoretical Impact of Replacing Whole Cow's Milk by Young-Child Formula on Nutrient Intakes of UK Young Children: Results of a Simulation Study

Background: Research into the role of young-child formulae (YCF) in a child's diet is limited and there is no consensual recommendation on its use. We evaluated the theoretical nutritional impact of replacing the existing practice of consuming cow's milk by YCF. Methods: From the UK Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children, whole cow's milk consumers, aged 12-18 months (n = 591) were selected for simulation scenarios. In Scenario 1, we tested the replacement of all whole cow's milk (434 ± 187 ml/day) by a matching volume of YCF, and in Scenario 2, all whole cow's milk was replaced by the on-pack recommended daily intake of 300 ml. Nutrient intakes before and after simulation scenarios were compared and evaluated against nutrient recommendations. Results: Intakes of protein and saturated fatty acids were significantly decreased, whereas essential fatty acid intakes were increased. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy before simulation was 95.2% for vitamin D and 53.8% for iron. After simulation, inadequacy decreased to 4.9% (Scenario 1) and 0% (Scenario 2) for vitamin D and to 2.7% (Scenario 1) and 1.1% (Scenario 2) for iron. Conclusions: Replacement of habitual cow's milk intake by a matching volume or 300 ml of YCF may lead to nutritional intakes more in line with recommendations in young children.