Supplementary Material for: Trends in the Causes of Death among Kidney Transplant Recipients in the United States (1996–2014)

Background: Death with graft function remains an important cause of graft loss among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Little is known about the trend of specific causes of death in KTRs in recent years. Methods: We analyzed United States Renal Data System data (1996–2014) to determine 1- and 10-year all-cause and cause-specific mortality in adult KTRs who died with a functioning allograft. We also studied 1- and 10-year trends in the various causes of mortality. Results: Of 210,327 KTRs who received their first kidney transplant from 1996 to 2014, 3.2% died within 1 year after transplant. Cardiovascular deaths constituted the majority (24.7%), followed by infectious (15.2%) and malignant (2.9%) causes; 40.1% of deaths had no reported cause. Using 1996 as the referent year, all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality declined, whereas mortality due to malignancy did not. For analyses of 10-year mortality, we studied 94,384 patients who received a first kidney transplant from 1996 to 2005. Of those, 22.1% died over 10 years and the causative patterns of their causes of death were similar to those associated with 1-year mortality. Conclusions: Despite the downtrend in mortality over the last 2 decades, a significant percentage of KTRs die in 10-years with a functioning graft, and cardiovascular mortality remains the leading cause of death. These data also highlight the need for diligent collection of mortality data in KTRs.