Supplementary Material for: Two Candidate Genes (FTO and INSIG2) for Fat Accumulation in Four Canids: Chromosome Mapping, Gene Polymorphisms and Association Studies of Body and Skin Weight of Red Foxes

Fat accumulation is a polygenic trait which has a significant impact on human health and animal production. Obesity is also an increasingly serious problem in dog breeding. The FTO and INSIG2 are considered as candidate genes associated with predisposition for human obesity. In this report we present a comparative genomic analysis of these 2 genes in 4 species belonging to the family Canidae – the dog and 3 species which are kept in captivity for fur production, i.e. red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog. We cytogenetically mapped these 2 loci by FISH and compared the entire coding sequence of INSIG2 and a fragment of the coding sequence of FTO. The FTO gene was assigned to the following chromosomes: CFA2q25 (dog), VVU2q21 (red fox), ALA8q25 (arctic fox) and NPP10q24–25 (Chinese raccoon dog), while the INSIG2 was mapped to CFA19q17, VVU5p14, ALA24q15 and NPP9q22, respectively. Altogether, 29 SNPs were identified (16 in INSIG2 and 13 in FTO) and among them 2 were missense substitutions in the dog (23C/T, Thr>Met in the FTO gene and 40C/A, Arg>Ser in INSIG2). The distribution of these 2 SNPs was studied in 14 dog breeds. Two synonymous SNPs, one in the FTO gene (–28T>C in the 5′-flanking region) and one in the INSIG2 (10175C>T in intron 2), were used for the association studies in red foxes (n = 390) and suggestive evidence was observed for their association with body weight (FTO, p < 0.08) and weight of raw skin (INSIG2, p < 0.05). These associations indicate that both genes are potential candidates for growth or adipose tissue accumulation in canids. We also suggest that the 2 missense substitutions found in dogs should be studied in terms of genetic predisposition to obesity.