Supplementary Material for: Uniparental Disomy of Chromosome 15 in Two Cases by Chromosome Microarray: A Lesson Worth Thinking

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are neurogenetic disorders caused by loss of function of the imprinted genes at 15q11q13. A 5-7 Mb paternal/maternal deletion of chromosomal region 15q11.2q13 is the major genetic cause of PWS/AS, but in a small group of patients, the PWS/AS phenotype can result from maternal/paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 15. Various mechanisms leading to UPD include gametic complementation, trisomy rescue, and compensatory UPD, which can be inferred from the pattern of uniparental heterodisomy (heteroUPD) or uniparental isodisomy (isoUPD). However, heteroUPD and isoUPD, especially mixed heteroUPD and isoUPD, are very rare in patients with PWS/AS. Here, we report 2 children with PWS/AS caused by mixed segmental heteroUPD 15 and isoUPD 15 which failed to be identified by chromosome microarray (CMA) but could be detected by other molecular genetic methods. The present report unravels the mechanism of mixed iso/heteroUPD 15 in PWS/AS and phenotype-genotype correlations. Moreover, our study suggests that CMA is prone to misdiagnosis for imprinting disorders such as PWS/AS, though it is considered a highly useful tool for copy number variations. As a result, other molecular detection methods, such as methylation analysis and STR marker analysis for UPD, should be supplementary used in this situation.