Supplementary Material for: Warfarin Use and Increased Mortality in End-Stage Renal Disease
Background: Controversy exists regarding the benefits and risks of warfarin therapy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In this study, we assessed mortality and cardiovascular outcomes associated with warfarin treatment in patients with stages 3-5 CKD and ESRD admitted to the University of California-Irvine Medical Center. Methods: In a retrospective matched cohort study, we identified 59 adult patients with stages 3-6 CKD initiated on warfarin during the period 2011-2013, and 144 patients with stages 3-6 CKD who had indications for anticoagulation therapy but were not initiated on warfarin. All-cause mortality risk associated with warfarin treatment was estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, and the risk of significant bleeding and major adverse cardiovascular events were analyzed with Poisson regression analysis. Adjustment models were used to account for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, use of antiplatelet agents, and preexisting cardiovascular disease, and stratified by pre-dialysis CKD stages 3-5 vs. ESRD. Findings: During 5.8 years of follow-up, unadjusted mortality risk was higher in CKD patients on warfarin therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 2.34 with 95% CI 1.25-4.39; p < 0.01). After multivariate adjustment and stratification by CKD stage, the mortality risk remained significant in ESRD patients receiving warfarin (HR 6.62 with 95% CI 2.56-17.16; p < 0.001). Furthermore, adjusted rates of significant bleeding (incident rate ratio, IRR 3.57 with 95% CI 1.51-8.45; p < 0.01) and myocardial infarction (IRR 4.20 with 95% CI 1.78-9.91; p < 0.01) were higher among warfarin users. No differences in rates of ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes were found between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Warfarin use was associated with several-fold higher risk of death, bleeding, and myocardial infarction in dialysis patients. If additional studies suggest similar associations, the use of warfarin in dialysis patients warrants immediate reconsideration.