Supplementary Material for: White Rice Intake Varies in Its Association with Metabolic Markers of Diabetes and Dyslipidemia Across Region among Chinese Adults

Background/Aims: There are inconsistent associations between white rice consumption and diabetes and dyslipidemia, perhaps due to the nature of samples studied and quality of diet data. Methods: Using regionally diverse data from adults enrolled in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (n = 7,878) with diet data from three repeated 24-hour recalls and fasting blood to derive diabetes and dyslipidemia, we examined the odds of diabetes and dyslipidemia in participants across region-specific tertiles of percent energy from white rice consumption. Results: The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, high triglycerides, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) was 4.7%, 31.8%, 31.3%, 25.9%, and 14.6%, respectively. We found an inverse association between the highest (versus lowest) tertile of rice intake and diabetes in Central China (odds ratio (OR): 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.99). The highest rice consumption was also associated with high triglycerides (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.95), low HDL (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.03-1.85), and AD (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.15-2.31) in North China, and low LDL (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.42-0.69) in Central China. Conclusions: The association between white rice consumption and diabetes and dyslipidemia markers varied across regions of China, suggesting a role of other dietary and health-related exposures, beyond rice.