Supplementary Material for: Youth-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Manifestations in other Specialties: Its Many Disguises

Background: Youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in many countries, creating large personal and societal burdens. While many primary health-care professionals (HCPs) are aware of the classic symptoms of T2D, there are several other manifestations that could indicate its presence. Summary: This narrative review summarizes information on these symptoms and indicators, focusing on those less well known. The classic symptoms and comorbidities include frequent urination, excessive thirst, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. In addition to these, the presence of dermatological (e.g., acanthosis nigricans, granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, and scleredema), gynecological (e.g., polycystic ovary syndrome, oligomenorrhea, and vulvovaginitis), hepatological (e.g., nonalcoholic fatty liver disease), and psychiatric diseases (e.g., psychosis, depression, and autism) could indicate that a patient has T2D or is at increased risk of T2D. Other less well-known indicators include abnormal blood tests (e.g., oxidized lipids, inflammation markers, hepatokines, and adipokines), prescriptions for antipsychotic medications or statins, and disrupted sleep patterns. Key Message: Due to the diversity of T2D manifestations in young people, primary HCPs need to remain alert to its possible presence.