Supplementary Material for: <b><i>Panax notoginseng</i></b> Saponins Ameliorate Leukocyte Adherence and Cerebrovascular Endothelial Barrier Breakdown upon Ischemia-Reperfusion in Mice

<i>Panax notoginseng</i> saponins (PNS) are known as clinical anti-stroke herbal medicines. The aim of this study is to describe the impact of PNS on ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral microvasculature barrier dysfunction which has not been investigated yet. Mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and PNS were administrated to mice 3 days before and 2 days after surgery. Leukocyte adhesion, albumin leakage, tight junctions and other parameters in the cortex were measured. The PNS 45 mg/kg intervention alleviated leukocyte adhesion, inhibited endothelial barrier alterations evidenced by reduced albumin leakage and tight junction degradations, and ultimately ameliorated infarct volumes and neurological deficits subsequent to ischemia-reperfusion. Taken together, <i>P. notoginseng</i> saponins are able to attenuate leukocyte-mediated microvascular disturbance at the onset of ischemic stroke.