PowerPoint Slides for: High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Hemodialysis Patients with Central Sleep Apnea: A Pilot Study

Background: The high prevalence of sleep apnea is reported in hemodialysis patients despite the low prevalence of obesity. The present study compared the occurrence of central sleep apnea (CSA) in hemodialysis patients with that in non-hemodialysis patients, and its association with new-onset coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods: Seventy-three hemodialysis and 444 non-hemodialysis patients were examined for CSA and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurrence using polysomnography. Hemodialysis patients were monitored for the occurrence of new-onset CHD events. Results: Hemodialysis patients had a significantly higher central apnea-hypopnea index (AHI; 0.7, range 0.2-3.1) than age-, sex- and obstructive AHI-matched non-hemodialysis patients (0.1, range 0-1.0; p < 0.001), in contrast with an insignificant difference for obstructive AHI. Furthermore, the prevalence of CSA was significantly higher in the hemodialysis (21.9%) than in the non-hemodialysis group (9.7%; p = 0.004). A significant and negative association existed between log (central AHI + 1) and Kt/V in hemodialysis patients. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, hemodialysis patients with CSA had a significantly higher rate of new-onset CHD events than those without CSA. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis identified CSA prevalence as an independent risk factor for the development of a new-onset CHD event, independent of OSA. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that hemodialysis patients had a significantly higher CSA prevalence than non-hemodialysis patients despite similar obstructive AHI, and that hemodialysis patients with CSA had a significantly higher risk for new-onset CHD events than those without CSA independent of obstructive AHI, suggesting CSA as a potential CHD risk specifically in hemodialysis patients.