PowerPoint Slides for: Vitamin K Metabolism in a Rat Model of Chronic Kidney Disease
datasetposted on 28.11.2016 by McCabe K.M., Booth S.L., Fu X., Ward E., Adams M.A., Holden R.M.
Datasets usually provide raw data for analysis. This raw data often comes in spreadsheet form, but can be any collection of data, on which analysis can be performed.
Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have very high levels of uncarboxylated, inactive, extra-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins measured in circulation, putting them at risk for complications of vitamin K deficiency. The major form of vitamin K found in the liver is phylloquinone (K1). Menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is the form of vitamin K that is preferentially found in extra-hepatic tissues. Methods: In the present study, we assessed tissue concentrations of K1 and MK-4 and the expression of vitamin K-related genes in a rat model of adenine-induced CKD. Results: It was found that rats with both mild and severe CKD had significantly lower amounts of K1 measured in liver, spleen and heart and higher levels of MK-4 measured in kidney cortex and medulla. All animals treated with high dietary K1 had an increase in tissue levels of both K1 and MK-4; however, the relative increase in K1 differed suggesting that the conversion of K1 to MK-4 may be a regulated/limiting process in some tissues. There was a decrease in the thoracic aorta expression of vitamin K recycling (Vkor) and utilization (Ggcx) enzymes, and a decrease in the kidney level of vitamin K1 to MK-4 bioconversion enzyme Ubiad1 in CKD. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings suggest that CKD impacts vitamin K metabolism, and this occurs early in the disease course. Our findings that vitamin K metabolism is altered in the presence of CKD provides further support that sub-clinical vitamin K deficiency may represent a modifiable risk factor for vascular and bone health in this population.