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Supplementary Material for: A Chinese Case of X-Linked Acrogigantism and Systematic Review

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posted on 18.03.2021, 12:51 by Liang H., Gong F., Liu Z., Yang Y., Yao Y., Wang R., Wang L., Chen M., Pan H., Zhu H.
Introduction: This study described a Chinese case of X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) and summarized the characteristics and treatment of all reported cases. Methods: Clinical materials and biological samples from a 5-year and 2-month-old female due to “growth acceleration for 4 years” were collected. Array comparative genomic hybrid (aCGH) and further verification were performed. All X-LAG cases from the PubMed and Web of Science databases were collected and summarized with available data. Results: The patient presented accelerating growth since 1 year, and her height reached 134.6 cm (+5.24 standard deviation score [SDS]) when she was 5-year and 2-month old. She also had coarsening facial features, snoring, and acral enlargement. Growth hormone (GH) was not suppressed by the glucose-GH inhibition test, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and prolactin (PRL) levels were elevated. Pituitary MRI revealed a pituitary enlargement with a maximum diameter of 22.3 mm. Octreotide imaging indicated the presence of a pituitary adenoma. The tumor shrank slightly after 3 courses of somatostatin analog but without clinical or biochemical remissions, of which the GH nadir value was 9.4 ng/mL, and IGF-1 was elevated to 749 ng/mL. Therefore, she underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Immunohistochemistry showed GH-positive and PRL-positive cells in the pituitary adenoma. Xq26.3 microduplication of the patient’s germline DNA was identified by aCGH. Of all 35 reported cases, females accounted for 71.43%. There were 93.10% and 53.83% patients with hyperprolactinemia and hyperinsulinemia, respectively. Pathology showed that 75.00% of cases were adenomas. Ninety percent of cases had germline variants. The clinical and biochemical remission rates were 78.26% and 82.61%, respectively. However, the rate of complication occurrence during therapy reached 80%. Conclusion: It is important to recognize the possibility of X-LAG when a child under 2-year old presents overgrowth. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance for better treatment efficacy and clinical outcome.


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