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Supplementary Material for: Activation and Impaired Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production of Circulating Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Patients with Trauma

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posted on 14.05.2019, 13:21 by Jo Y.-G., Jin H.-M., Cho Y.-N., Kim J.-C., Kee S.-J., Park Y.-W.
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells rapidly produce proinflammatory cytokines in an innate-like manner and play an important role in controlling the host immune response. This study examined the function of MAIT cells in trauma patients. The expression of cytokines in peripheral blood MAIT cells was measured by flow cytometry. MAIT cells in trauma patients displayed impaired tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production, together with elevated CD69 expression. The expression of CD69 was negatively correlated with MAIT cell frequency. These patients had higher plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18. In particular, CD69 expression of MAIT cells was increased by stimulation with IL-18 in synergy with other proinflammatory cytokines or plasma of trauma patients. The production of TNF-α by MAIT cells was characterized by an initial burst and rapid decline, in contrast to delayed and sustained production of interferon (IFN)-γ. Activated MAIT cells showed a functional defect in the production of TNF-α upon restimulation. This study demonstrates that circulating MAIT cells are activated and functionally impaired in TNF-α production in patients with trauma. The activation and dysfunction of MAIT cells was mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. These findings provide important information underlying the innate immune response of patients with trauma.

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