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Supplementary Material for: Acute Kidney Injury Caused by TAFRO Syndrome in a Chinese Patient: Efficacy of Long-Term Corticosteroids Combined with Bortezomib and Cyclophosphamide

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posted on 03.06.2020, 09:55 by Xia P., Zhang L., Zou M., Zhang T., Li R., Shi X., Wang J., Qin Y., Li X., Li J., Chen L.
Introduction: Thrombocytopenia, ascites, myelofibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly (TAFRO) syndrome is a newly recognized and rare clinical subtype of Castleman disease. Renal involvement in TAFRO syndrome usually presents with mild proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and acute renal injury requiring temporary renal replacement. There is no standard therapy available and treatment failures are common, leading to a poor prognosis. We report a case of acute renal failure caused by TAFRO syndrome, successfully managed by long-term corticosteroids combined with bortezomib and cyclophosphamide. Case Presentation: The patient was a 52-year-old female who presented with fever, anasarca, oliguria, and abdominal distension at first. She progressed rapidly to anuric renal failure requiring hemodialysis. She also demonstrated thrombocytopenia, anemia, coagulopathy, and a hyperinflammatory status. Her CT scan showed severe polyserositis, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy. Her serum vascular epithelial growth factor level was significantly elevated. Axillary lymph node biopsy showed hyaline-vascular type Castleman disease, supporting the diagnosis of TAFRO syndrome. Her renal function recovered after high-dose steroids and supportive treatment. A weekly dosing regimen of bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone combined with medium dose prednisone in between were deployed. Her blood cell count and renal function remained stable after 6 months. The inflammation was suppressed and the polyserositis resolved completely. Conclusion: TAFRO syndrome is rare and has a poor prognosis due to the lack of standard treatment. Our patient might be the first TAFRO case successfully treated by bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and corticosteroids.