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Supplementary Material for: Agreement of Cardiac Output Estimates between Electrical Cardiometry and Transthoracic Echocardiography in Very Preterm Infants

posted on 27.07.2022, 05:03 authored by Schwarz C.E., Livingstone V., O’Toole J.M., Healy D.B., Panaviene J., Dempsey E.M.
Introduction: The aim was to evaluate the agreement between cardiac output estimates obtained by electrical cardiometry (EC) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in very preterm infants. Methods: This is a single-center prospective observational study in infants born<32 weeks gestational age within 48 h of birth. Continuous EC was recorded and simultaneous TTE obtained on day 1 and day 2 of life. Blinded TTE measurements were performed within a 10 s timeframe using beat-to-beat EC data. The primary outcome was %error of left ventricular (LV) output in milliliters per kilogram per minute (cardiac index (CI)) obtained by TTE compared to LV-CI from EC. Secondary outcome parameters were bias, %bias, limits of agreement and include measures of right ventricular (RV) output and LV systolic time intervals. Results: Analysis was performed for 34 infants (median (IQR) gestational age 29 + 0 (24 + 5 to 30 + 6) weeks + days, birthweight 960 (748 to 1,490) grams) including 44 pairwise LV output measurements on 24 participants (22 on day 1 and day 2). The %error was 54% for LV-CI (EC: 214 (38) mL/kg/min vs. TTE: 163 (47) mL/kg/min). The %error was 78% for RV-CI (EC: 213 (37) mL/kg/min vs. TTE: 241 (77) mL/kg/min). While only LV-CI values affected LV-CI bias, signal quality, heart rate, and RV-CI values affected RV-CI bias. Conclusion: EC is not interchangeable with TTE to estimate indices of LV or RV output in very preterm infants within the first 48 h postnatally. EC may not measure LV output distinctly in very preterm infants with intra- and extracardiac shunts.