Supplementary Material for: Agreement of Cardiac Output Measurements between Bioreactance and Transthoracic Echocardiography in Preterm Infants during the Transitional Phase: A Single-Centre, Prospective Study

Introduction: Bioreactance cardiac output (CO) monitors are able to non-invasively and continuously monitor CO. However, as a novel tool to measure CO, it must be proven to be accurate and precise. Objective: To determine the agreement between CO measured with a bioreactance monitor and transthoracic echocardiography-derived left ventricular output parameters in preterm infants. Methods: This is a prospective observational study in 63 preterm neonates with non-invasive respiratory support, not requiring inotrope support. The infants underwent continuous bioreactance monitoring of CO and stroke volume (SV) and simultaneous transthoracic echocardiography every 6 h until 72 h of life. Results: The agreement between bioreactance and transthoracic echocardiography, for both SV and CO, was poor. The percentage error was 67.5% for SV and 71.6% for CO. The mean error was 60.4% for SV and 69.8% for CO. Bias was affected by numerous variables. After correcting for time, CO and SV bias were significantly affected by the presence of an open patent ductus arteriosus and the level of CO. Conclusion: Bioreactance cannot be considered interchangeable with transthoracic echocardiography to measure CO in preterm infants during the transition phase. Agreement between bioreactance and other CO metrics should be assessed before concluding its accuracy or inaccuracy in neonates.