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Supplementary Material for: Arm Span and Its Relation to Height in a 2- to 17-Year-Old Reference Population and Heterozygous Carriers of ACAN Variants

posted on 23.06.2020, 06:09 by Gerver W.J.M., Gkourogianni A., Dauber A., Nilsson O., Wit J.M.
Background/Objectives: In the clinical assessment of a short or tall child, estimating body disproportion is useful to assess the likelihood of a primary growth disorder, e.g., skeletal dysplasia. Our objectives were (1) to use data from the Maastricht study on healthy children (2–17 years) to calculate relative arm span (AS) for height (H) to serve as age references for clinical purposes; (2) to assess its age and sex dependency; and (3) to investigate relative AS adjustment for age and sex in individuals with ACAN haploinsufficiency. Methods: The Maastricht study data (2,595 Caucasian children, 52% boys, 48% girls) were re-analysed to produce reference tables and graphs for age and sex of AS – H and AS/H. Published information on AS/H in Europeans was used as reference data for adults. Relative AS from 33 patients with ACAN haploinsufficiency were plotted against reference data and expressed as standard deviation score (SDS) for age and sex. Results: Mean AS – H from 2 to 17 years increased from –1.2 to +1.5 cm in boys and from –4.8 to +1.6 cm in girls. Mean AS/H increased from 0.9848 to 1.0155 in boys and from 0.9468 to 1.0028 in girls. Mean AS/H in patients with ACAN haploinsufficiency was approximately 1.0, 1.5 and 0.5 SDS in young children, adolescents and 20- to 50-year-olds, respectively, and normal thereafter. Conclusions: These reference charts can be used for 2- to 17-year-old children/adolescents. Carriers of ACAN haploinsufficiency have an elevated mean AS/H in childhood and adolescence and a slightly elevated ratio till 50 years.